Macrolichens of North America

by Chris Parrish

Photo: Usnea, Chris Parrish, Mushroom Observer

Macrolichens of North America is an attempt to organize access to online visual resources (photographs and locality maps) for the macrolichens of Canada and the United States. It includes access to the photographic contributions of the Mushroom Observer community, the Burke Museum, and Ways of Enlichenment, the comprehensive North American collections of CNALH and Sharnoff, and relevant parts of the magnificent western palaearctic photographic collections of Poumarat, Seawright, Silverside, the Stridvall's, Sutcliffe, and Timdal.

The checklists forming the framework of this enterprise and the taxonomy of the genera and species of macrolichens are from Esslinger, December 2012; higher categories are from Myconet.

This is very much a work in progress. The files for Peltigera, Pyxine, and Umbilicaria indicate the concept we are trying to implement, and the files for the remaining genera are beginning to move in that direction. According to the present representation, there are 147 genera and 1,474 species of macrolichens in North America. Approximately 73% of those genera and 27% of the species are illustrated on these pages by more than 1,450 photographs contributed by the Mushroom Observer community. A resolute lichenologist following all of these links would see something approaching 16,000 photos.

In passing, it's interesting to compare the figure of 146 genera of North American macrolichens with the total of 635 genera included in the current Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada.

There is much more to explore in these references on North American lichens, regional lichen floras, and accounts of some distinguished North American lichenologists.

See the colorful Macrolichens of North America for access to the North American macrolichen observations on Mushroom Observer.

An alphabetical index of the following generic files is also available.


Phylum Ascomycota

Class Arthoniomycetes

Order Arthoniales Henssen ex D. Hawksw. & O.E. Erikss. 1986

Roccellaceae Chevall. 1826

Class Eurotiomycetes

Order Chaetothyriales M.E. Barr 1987

Herpotrichiellaceae Munk 1953

Order Verrucariales Mattick ex D. Hawksw. & O.E. Erikss. 1986.

Verrucariaceae Zenker 1827

Class Lecanoromycetes

Subclass Ostropomycetidae Reeb, Lutzoni & Cl. Roux 2004

Order Baeomycetales Lumbsch, Huhndorf & Lutzoni

Baeomycetaceae Dumort. 1829

Order Ostropales Nannf. 1932

Thelotremataceae (Nyl.) Stizenb. 1862

Order Pertusariales M. Choisy ex D. Hawksw. & O.E. Erikss. 1986

Icmadophilaceae Triebel 1993
Megasporaceae Lumbsch, Feige & K. Schmitz 1994

Subclass Lecanoromycetidae P.M. Kirk, P.F. Cannon, J.C. David & Stalpers ex Miadl., Lutzoni & Lumbsch 2007

Order Lecanorales Nannf. 1932

Cladoniaceae Zenker 1827
Lecanoraceae Körb. 1855
Parmeliaceae Zenker 1827
Psoraceae Zahlbr. 1898
Ramalinaceae C. Agardh 1821
Sphaerophoraceae Fr. 1831
Stereocaulaceae Chevall. 1826

Order Peltigerales W. Watson 1929

Suborder Collematineae Miadl. & Lutzoni

Coccocarpiaceae (Mont. ex Müll. Stuttg.) Henssen 1986
Collemataceae Zenker 1827
Pannariaceae Tuck. 1872
Placynthiaceae Å.E. Dahl 1950

Suborder Peltigerineae

Lobariaceae Chevall. 1826
Nephromataceae Wetm. ex J.C. David & D. Hawksw. 1991
Peltigeraceae Dumort. 1822

Suborder Peltigerineae, genera incertae sedis

Order Teloschistales D. Hawksw. & O.E. Erikss. 1986

Physciaceae Zahlbr. 1898
Teloschistaceae Zahlbr. 1898

Subclass Lecanoromycetidae, families incertae sedis

Ophioparmaceae R.W. Rogers & Hafellner 1988

Class Lecanoromycetes, orders incertae sedis

Order Candelariales Miadl., Lutzoni & Lumbsch 2007

Candelariaceae Hakul.

Order Umbilicariales Lumbsch, Hestmark & Lutzoni 2007(incertae sedis )

Umbilicariaceae Chevall. 1826

Class Lichinomycetes

Order Lichinales Henssen & Büdel 1986

Heppiaceae Zahlbr. 1906
Lichinaceae Nyl. 1854
Peltulaceae Büdel 1986

Phylum Ascomycota, genera incertae sedis


Phylum Basidiomycota

Class Basidiomycetes

Order Agaricales

Hygrophoraceae

Order Cantharellales

Clavulinaceae




cparrish@sewanee.edu