Macrolichens of North America ~
Regional Lichen Floras

by Chris Parrish

Photo: Usnea, Chris Parrish, Mushroom Observer

In its present form, this page is a preliminary sketch of an idea. Additional content should appear over time.

North American Regions



CNALH Arctic research checklists: Geiser, Linda H., Karen L. Dillman, Chiska C. Derr, Mary C. Stensvold, 1998, Lichens and allied fungi of southeast Alaska. - In: M. G. Glenn, Richard C. Harris, R. Dirig, M. S. Cole, (eds.), 1998, Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, New York, pp. 201-243.
Michigan State University Herbarium, Provisional Checklist of Alaskan Lichens
Spribille et al., 2010, Lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Klondike Gold Rush National Historic Park, Alaska, in a global biodiversity context, The Bryologist, 113(3):439-515.
Thompson, John W., 1979, Lichens of the Alaskan Arctic Slope, University of Toronto Press.

Western Canada

British Columbia

Goward, Trevor, Bruce McCune, and Del Meidinger, 1994, The Lichens of British Columbia Illustrated Keys Part 1 - Foliose and Squamulose Species
Goward, Trevor, 1999, The Lichens of British Columbia Illustrated Keys Part 2 - Fruticose Species
Goward, Trevor, Lichens of British Columbia - Rare Species and Priorities for Inventory
Goward, T. and C.R. Björk, 2013, Macrolichens and mesolichens of Wells Gray Provincial Park and vicinity. Enlichened Consulting Ltd, Clearwater, British Columbia (Version 2, first posted June 2013).
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from the Thompson Region, Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia: Edgewood Blue -- Grouse Lake -- Natural Bridge -- Thompson Region -- Philip Lake -- Spahats Falls
Noble, Willa Jane, 1982, The Lichen Flora of the Coastal Douglas-fir Dry Subzone of British Columbia. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Part II reprinted and updated in 1997. (ordering information)


Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, 2002, List of All Lichen Elements [checklist of the lichens of Alberta]
Elizabeth A. John, The Saxicolous Lichen Flora of Jonas Rockslide, Jasper National Park, Alberta, The Bryologist, Vol. 92, No. 1 (Spring, 1989), pp. 105-111.
Doug Waylett, et al., Lichens of Canada on flickr
Doug Waylett's lichen photos on flickr:
  Fruticose Lichens of Alberta except Cladonia
  Cladonias of Alberta
  Foliose Lichens of Alberta except Peltigeras
  Peltigeras of Alberta
  Squamulose lichens of Alberta
  Crustose Lichens of Alberta
  Lichenomphallia of Alberta
Doug Waylett's lichen photos on flickr: Kananaskis localities
  Bow Valley Provincial Park, Fullerton Loop Trail, Upper Kananaskis Lake Area, West Bragg Creek, Marsten Creek,
  Pocaterra Cirque Trail, Picklejar Lakes Trail, Ptarmigan Cirque, Plateau Mountain Ecological Reserve, Other Kananaskis Areas
Lichen Communities of North America on flickr

Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Alberta: (Alberta observations) -- Mount Stearn, Willmore Wilderness (site) -- Dunvegan Crossing, Peace River (site) -- Grand Cache (site) -- Grand Prairie (site) -- Onion Peak (site) -- Peyto Lake (site) -- Limestone Mountain (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Jasper National Park: Jonas rock slide (site) -- Maligne Lake -- Maligne River, 3 mi north of Maligne Lake
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Banff National Park: Parker Ridge -- Waterfowl Lake
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Kananaskis Country: Lower Kananaskis Lake, Peter Lougheed Provincial Park -- Elbow Lake, Peter Lougheed Provincial Park -- Ptarmigan Cirque, Peter Lougheed Provincial Park
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Waterton Lakes National Park: Cameron Creek -- Red Rock Canyon

Canadian Atlantic


Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Quebec: (Quebec observations)

Prince Edward Island

McMullin, Richard Troy; Stephen R. Clayden, Steven B. Selva, Rosemary Curley and Lyndsay J. Schram, A Lichen Checklist for Prince Edward Island, Canada, Evansia, 29(1):4-25. 2012.

New Brunswick

Gowan, Sharon P., and Irwin M. Brodo, 1988, The Lichens of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, Canada, The Bryologist, Vol. 91, No. 4 (Winter, 1988), pp. 255-325.

Nova Scotia

Anderson, Frances and T. H. Neily, New and Noteworthy Macrolichen Records for Nova Scotia, Evansia, 29(1):1-3. 2012.
Richard Troy McMullin, Lichens of Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site, Nova Scotia, Canada (Provisional List), Opuscula Philolichenum, 7: 71-78. 2009.
Richard Troy McMullin, New and Interesting Lichens from Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site, Nova Scotia, Canada, Opuscula Philolichenum 11: 52-59. 2012.

Far West

Pacific Northwest

McCune, Bruce, 2012, Keys to the Lichen Genera of the Pacific Northwest, 96 pp.

Colombia Basin (WA, OR, ID)

McCune, Bruce, and Roger Rosentreter, 2007, Biotic Soil Crust Lichens of the Columbia Basin, Monographs in North American Lichenology, Vol. 1: 1-105. Northwest Lichenologists, Corvallis, Oregon.
Rosentreter, Roger, Matthew Bowker and Jayne Belnap. 2008. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands. U.S. Government Printing Office, Denver, Colorado.


Monica W. Proulx and Larry L. St. Clair, 2013, The Lichen Flora of the Spring Mountains, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Nevada, USA, North American Fungi 8(3):1-21, 2013.


CNALH research checklists: California Lichen Society [CALS], Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, Species List Map
Hale, Mason E., Jr., and Mariette Cole, 1988, Lichens of California, University of California Press.
Knudsen, Kerry et al., Lichens, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of the Santa Monica Mountains:
  Part One. Opuscula Philolichenum, 2: 27-36, 2005.
  An annotated checklist of the lichens of the Santa Monica Mountains. In: Knapp, D. A. (ed.): Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Southern California Botanists Symposium. Flora and Ecology of the Santa Monica Mountains. Southern California Botanists Special Publication, No. 4. Fullerton, pp. 35-62, 2007.
  Part 3: additions and corrections to the annotated checklist. Opuscula Philolichenum, 5: 53-60, 2008.
  Part 4: Additions and Corrections to the Annotated Checklist. Opuscula Philolichenum, 7: 29-48, 2009.
  Part 5: Additions and Corrections to the Annotated Checklist, Opuscula Philolichenum, 8: 83-100. 2010
  Bennett and Wetmore, CNALH Research checklist
Kerry Knudsen, Mitzi Harding, Josh Hoines, The Lichen Flora of Joshua Tree National Park, An Annotated Checklist, National Park Service, Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/JOTR/NRTR-2013/743, 2013.
Kerry Knudsen, Jana Kocourkova, The Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi of the Point Loma Conservation Area, San Diego, California, USA, Evansia 26(1):24-29. 2009
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Mendocino Co., California: Point Navarro Preserve (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Monterey Co., California: Point Lobos State Park (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Inyo Co., California: Death Valley National Park (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from the San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles Co., California: Eaton Canyon, Mount Wilson -- Mount Gleason -- Mount Wilson (site) -- San Gabriel Mountains -- Strawberry Peak -- Mount Baden-Powell
Stephen Sharnoff, A Field Guide to California Lichens, Yale University Press (expected May 27, 2014)
Tucker, Shirley C., and Bruce D. Ryan, 2006, Revised Catalog of Lichens, Lichenicoles, and Allied Fungi in California, Constancia 84, 275 pages + references
Tucker, Shirley C., and Harry Thiers, 1998, Key to Crustose Lichen Genera of California, Bulletin of the California Lichen Society, Volume 5, No. 1, Summer 1998.

Rocky Mountains

Rocky Mountains

Imshaug, 1957, Alpine Lichens of Western United States and Adjacent Canada I. The Macrolichens, The Bryologist, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Sep., 1957), pp. 177-272
McCune, Bruce, and Trevor Goward, 1995, Macrolichens of the Northern Rocky Mountains, Mad River Press, Inc.
St. Clair, Larry L., 1999, A Color Guidebook to Common Rocky Mountain Lichens
Ann Henson , Christopher Lea , Scott T. Bates, Lichens of Granitic Rocks in Rocky Mountain National Park Larimer County, Colorado, U.S.A., Evansia, 30(1):17-23. 2013.


DeBolt, Ann, and Bruce McCune, 1993, Lichens of Glacier National Park, Montana, Bryologist, Vol. 96, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 192-204.
Eversman, Sharon, 1982, Epiphytic Lichens of a Ponderosa Pine Forest in Southeastern Montana, The Bryologist, Vol. 85, No. 2 (Summer, 1982), pp. 204-213
Eversman, Sharon, 1995, Lichens of Alpine Meadows on the Beartooth Plateau, Montana and Wyoming, U.S.A., Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Nov., 1995), pp. 400-40.
McCune, Bruce, 1984, Lichens with Oceanic Affinities in the Bitterroot Mountains of Montana and Idaho, The Bryologist, Vol. 87, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp. 44-50.
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Glacier National Park, Montana (observations): Avalanche Creek -- Saint Mary Lake -- Sun Point, Saint Mary Lake


Anderegg, Doyle E., Gary J. Schroeder, Nancy E. Schroeder, 1973, Further Additions to the Lichen Flora of Idaho, The Bryologist, Vol. 76, No. 1 (Spring, 1973), pp. 207-208.
Rosentreter, Roger, Vagrant Lichens in North America, The Bryologist, Vol. 96, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 333-338.
Schroeder, Nancy E., Gary J. Schroeder, Doyle E. Anderegg, 1975, Catalog of the Lichens of Idaho, The Bryologist, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Spring, 1975), pp. 32-43.


Eversman, Sharon, 1990, Lichens of Yellowstone National Park, The Bryologist, Vol. 93, No. 2 (Summer, 1990), pp. 197-205.
Eversman, Sharon, Clifford M. Wetmore, Katherine Glew, and James P. Bennett, 2002, Patterns of Lichen Diversity in Yellowstone National Park, The Bryologist, 105(1):27-42.
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: Mount Washburn -- Hayden Valley -- Lewis River
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming: Lizard Creek, Jackson Lake -- Togwotee Pass, 24 mi east of Grand Teton National Park


CNALH research checklists: Anderson, Roger A., 1962, The Lichen Flora of the Dakota Sandstone in North-Central Colorado, The Bryologist, Vol. 65, No. 3 (Autumn, 1962), pp. 242-261
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (observations): Alpine Visitor Center (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Mesa County, Colorado: Colorado National Monument (site)
Rocky Mountain National Park, Lichens [illustrated checklist of the lichens of Rocky Mountain National Park]
Shrestha, Gajendra and Larry L. St. Clair, 2009, The Lichen Flora of Southwestern Colorado, Evansia, 26(3):102-123.
Shushan and Anderson, 1969, Catalog of the Lichens of Colorado, The Bryologist, Vol. 72, No. 4 (Winter, 1969), pp. 451-483



CNALH research checklists: Bates et al., 2010, A Revised Catalog of Arizona Lichens, Canotia 6(1): 26-43.
Bungartz, F., R. Rosentretter, and T. H. Nash III, 2002, Field Guide to Common Epiphytic Macrolichens in Arizona, Arizona State University Lichen Herbarium.
Mushroom Observer lichen observations in Arizona: Canyon de Chelly National Monument (site) -- Chiricahua National Monument (site) -- Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (site, observations) -- Kitt Peak (site) -- Walnut Canyon National Monument (site)

New Mexico

Egan, Robert S., 1972, Catalog of the Lichens of New Mexico, The Bryologist, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Spring, 1972), pp. 7-35.
Egan, Robert S., 1970, Additions to the Lichen Flora of New Mexico, The Bryologist, Vol. 73, No. 1 (Spring, 1970), pp. 143-145.
Egan, Robert S., 1971, Additions to the Lichen Flora of New Mexico. II, The Bryologist, Vol. 74, No. 3 (Autumn, 1971), pp. 387-390.
Mushroom Observer lichen observations near Taos, New Mexico: Elliott Barker Trail, Carson National Forest (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations near Santa Fe, New Mexico: Dale Ball Trails (site) -- Chamisa Trail, Santa Fe National Forest (site)

Great Plains

South Dakota and Wyoming

Wetmore, Clifford M., 1967, Lichens of the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, Publications of the Museum, Michigan State University


Walewski, Joe, 2007, Lichens of the North Woods, Kollath+Stensaas Publishing.
Wetmore, Clifford M., 2005, Keys to the Lichens of Minnesota


Harris, Richard C., and Douglas Ladd, 2005, Preliminary draft- Ozark lichens; Enumerating the lichens of the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas, Kansas, Illinois, Missouri, and Oklahoma- Prepared for the 14th Tuckerman Lichen Workshop, Eureka Springs, Arkansas. 249 pp.

South Central States


Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Arkansas: Dabney Creek (site)


Mushroom Observer lichen observations from the Davis Mountains, West Texas: Davis Mountains (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Big Bend National Park, Brewster Co., Texas (observations): Pinnacles Trail, The Basin (site) -- Lost Mine Trail, Chisos Mountains (site) -- Pine Canyon, Chisos Mountains (site)
Wetmore, Clifford M., 1976, Macrolichens of Big Bend National Park, Texas, The Bryologist, Vol. 79, No. 3 (Autumn, 1976), pp. 296-313.

Great Lakes


CNALH research checklists: Thompson, John W., 2003, Lichens of Wisconsin, Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin - Madison


Fryday, Alan, John Fair, Moises Googe, Andrew Johnson, and Elizabeth Bunting, Checklist of Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi recorded from Michigan, Michigan State University Herbarium


Ohio Moss and Lichen Association, Ohio Lichens
Showman, Ray E., and Don G. Flenniken, 2004, The Macrolichens of Ohio, Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio.


New England

Greene, Douglas, 2010, Checklist of lichens that grow (or are reported to grow) on Mount Desert Island
Pope, Ralph, 2005, Lichens Above Treeline, A Hiker's Guide to Alpine Zone Lichens of the Northeastern United States, University Press of New England.


CNALH research checklists: Scott LaGreca, The Lichens of Windsor Jambs, Massachusetts, Evansia, 29(4):93-100. 2012.


Southern Appalachians

Dey, Jonathan P., 1978, Fruticose and Foliose Lichens of the High-Mountain Areas of the Southern Appalachians, The Bryologist, Vol. 81, No. 1 (Spring, 1978), pp. 1-93.
James C. Lendemer, Richard C. Harris, Erin A. Tripp, The Lichens and Allied Fungi of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: An Annotated Checklist With Comprehensive Keys, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 2013. Review by Bennett
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and vicinity (sites, map of sites, observations): Andrews Bald, NC (site) -- Balsam Mountain Trail, NC (site ) -- Bote Mountain Trail, NC (site ) -- Bradley Fork Trail, Smokemont, NC (site ) -- Cabin Cove, NC (site ) -- Cataloochee, NC (site ) -- Charlie's Bunion, Appalachian Trail, TN (site ) -- Clingman's Dome, NC (site) -- Dick's Trail, White Oak Mountain, NC (site ) -- Elkmont, TN (site ) -- Forney Ridge Trail, NC (site ) -- Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cocke Co., TN (site ) -- Litle River, TN (site ) -- Look Rock, Chilhowee Mountain, TN (site ) -- Metcalf Bottoms, TN (site ) -- Mount Leconte, TN (site ) -- Newfound Gap, NC (site ) -- Newfound Gap, TN (site ) -- Schoolhouse Gap Trail, TN (site ) -- Spruce-Fir Nature Trail, NC (site ) -- Tremont, TN (site ) -- White Oak Mountain, NC (site ) --

West Virginia

Flenniken, Don G., 1999, The Macrolichens in West Virginia, privately published.


Brendan P. Hodkinson, A First Assessment of Lichen Diversity for One of North America's 'Biodiversity Hotspots' in the Southern Appalachians of Virginia, CASTANEA 75(1): 126-133. March 2010
Hodkinson, Brendan P., Richard C. Harris, and Martha A. Case, 2009. A Checklist of Virginia Lichens, Evansia 26(2): 64-88.

North Carolina

CNALH research checklists for NC and SC: Gary B. Perlmutter, Lichen Biotic Inventory of Turnipseed Preserve, North Carolina, USA, Evansia, 30(2):1-10. 2013.
Gary B. Perlmutter, James C. Lendemer, 2008, Contributions to the Lichen Flora of North Carolina: A Preliminary Checklist of the Lichens and Allied Fungi at William B. Umstead State Park, Opuscula Philolichenum, 5: 67-76.
  CNALH checklist with interactive map.
James C. Lendemer, Erin Tripp, Contributions to the lichen flora of North Carolina: A preliminary checklist of the lichens of Gorges State Park, The Bryologist 111(1), pp. 57-67, 2008.


Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Tennessee: Sewanee (site, observations)


Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Alabama: Aldridge Gardens, Hoover (site) -- Audubon Bird Sanctuary, Dauphin Island (site) -- Bankhead National Forest (site) -- Bellingrath Gardens (site) -- Birmingham (site) -- Bon Secour (site) -- Botanical Gardens, Birmingham (site) -- Cane Creek Canyon Nature Preserve (site) -- Cheaha Mountain State Park (site) -- Chinnabee Lake (site) -- Coleman Lake, Talladega National Forest (site) -- DeSoto State Park (site) -- Hoover Sport Park East (site) -- Lakeshore Trail, Homewood (site) -- Moss Rock Preserve (site) -- Natural Bridge State Park (site) -- Wedowee Lake (site) -- Oak Mountain State Park (site) -- Payne Lake State Park (site) -- Perry Lakes Park (site) -- Shoal Creek, Talladega National Forest (site) -- Solon Dixon Forestry Education Center (site) -- Sportplex parking, Hoover (site) -- Tannehill State Park (site) -- Twin Pine (site) -- Walls of Jericho (site) -- Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge (site)


CNALH research checklists: DeBolt, Ann, et al., 2007, Macrolichen diversity in subtropical forests of north-central Florida
Harris, Richard C., 1995, More Florida lichens: Including the 10ยข tour of the pyrenolichens
Kaminsky, Barry, 2011, Lichen Cover and Diversity in a South Florida Forest
Kaminsky, Barry, Roger Rosentreter , Ann DeBolt, Ecology and Distribution of Coccocarpia filiformis and Other New and Uncommon Florida Lichens, Evansia, 30(3):79-89. 2013.
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from North Florida: Apalachicola National Forest, Wakulla Co. (site) -- Dixie Co. (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from Central Florida: Ocala National Forest, Marion Co. (site, field notes) -- Lakeland (site) -- Sarasota (site)
Mushroom Observer lichen observations from the Florida Keys: Buttonwood, south Key Largo, Monroe Co. (site) -- Curry Hammock State Park, Grassy Key, Monroe Co. (site) -- Dove Creek Hammock, south Key Largo, Monroe Co. (site) -- No Name Key, Monroe Co. (site) -- Port Bougainvillea, north Key Largo, Monroe Co. (site)

Macrolichens of North America